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Tumenye Umubyeyi w'Abaskuti Baden Powell

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Baden Powell, Umuyobozi mukuru w'Abaskuti

Hashize iminsi mikeya duhimbaje Umunsi mukuru wa Baden Powell washinze umuryango w'Abaskuti ku isi. Baden Powell avugwaho byinshi byaranze ubutwari bwe, ndetse twe twakuriye mu muryango w'Abaskuti tumufata nk'umubyeyi wacu. Ibyaranze ubuzima bwe bwose sinakwihandagaza ngo mvuge ko muri iyi nyandiko ngufi nabibwira byose, ahubwo ni umusogongero w'incamarenga y'ubuzima bw'iyo ntwari. Nimbatera inyota n'amatsiko, nababwira iki mushakashake, mucukumbure kugira ngo murusheho kumumenya no kumukunda.

INCAMAKE

Habayeho umuryango, wari utuye i Londoni mu rusisiro rwa Stanhope Street, numero ya 6, mu rugo rwa Nyakubahwa Porofeseri Baden-Powell.

Kuwa 22 Gashyantare 1857 uwo muryango waje kwibaruka umwana w'umuhungu, uzwi ku kabyiniriro ka B. -P, waje kuba umutware w'ingabo ukomeye mu gihugu cye, arangwa n'ubuhanga n'ubutwari bidasanzwe. Nyuma yo gukorera igihugu cye atiziganya yaje kwitangira uburere bw'urubyiruko, ashinga umuryango w'Abaskuti hamwe n'umuryango w'Abagide.

Mu bihe bye bya nyuma, yaje gutura i Nyeri, mu gihugu cya Kenya, aho atahwemye kwitangira urubyiruko, akaba ari naho yaguye mu mwaka w'1941.

IVUKA RYA B. –P

Umunsi umwe, ku cyumweru mu gitondo, tariki ya 22 Gashyantare 1857, Nyakubahwa Porofeseri n’umugore we Henrietta Grace Smyth bibarutse umwana w’umuhungu wagize imibereho yagize ingaruka ikomeye ku buzima bw’urubyiruko ibihumbi n’ibihumbagiza hirya no hino ku isi. Uwo muhungu yari umwana wa 12 wa Nyakubahwa Porofeseri Baden-Powell. Ku itariki ya 8 Nyakanga 1857, muri kiliziya ya Mutagatifu James iherereye mu gace ka Sussex Gardens i Londoni, uwo mwana w’umuhungu yarabatijwe yitwa Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell. Bwana Robert Stephenson, wari umunywanyi wa Nyakubahwa Porofeseri Baden-Powell, ni we watoranyirijwe kuba umubyeyi wa batisimu w’uwo mwana.

AFITE IMYAKA ITATU GUSA, B -P YAGIZE IBYAGO APFUSHA SE

Nyuma y’aho, uwo muryango wibarutse abandi bana babiri : Agnes Smith, wavutse mu mwaka w’1858, waje kugira uruhare rukomeye mu muryango w’Abagide, na Baden Fletcher Smith, wavutse mu 1860. Mu gihe kitageze ku kwezi nyuma y’ivuka ry’uwo mwana wa nyuma, Nyakubahwa Porofeseri Baden-Powell yitabye Imana. Umugore wa Powell, wari ufite imyaka 35 icyo gihe, yahise aba umukuru w’umuryango ugizwe n’abana 9 bafite igikuriro kiri hagati y’ibyumweru 3 n’imyaka 21. Nkuko yari ashishikariye kwita ku burere bw’abo bana be, yafashe icyemezo agura inzu mu rusisiro rwa Hyde Park Gate; urugo rwari rufite numero ya 9.

B -P NTIYIGEZE AGIRA AMAFARANGA Y'INGOBOKA

Nyuma y’aho yahinduye izina rye ry’ababyeyi ahitamo kwitwa “Baden-Powell”. Yari umubyeyi wuje ubwuzu n’urugwiro, ariko akagira igitsure. Urugero nta na rimwe yigeze aha buri mwana ku giti cye amafaranga y’ingoboka (argent de poche). Yari yarahisemo kugira agasanduku k’umuryango, aho yashyiraga amafaranga yitaga “amafaranga y’umuryango”. Buri wese yashoboraga gufatamo ayo akeneye, apfa gusa gusiga yanditse agapapuro kagaragaza umubare w’ayo yatwaye n’icyo yagiye kuyakoresha, ku buryo buri wese mu muryango yashoboraga kumenya uko buri muntu akoresha amafaranga y’umuryango.

B.-P. YARI AFITE IMPANO MU MIKINO

Robert S. S. Baden-Powell akiri muto atangira gushishikarira ibintu bitandukanye na mbere y’uko atangira ishuri afite imyaka cumi n’umwe. Yari azi kwandika, gukina (ikinamico) no gushushanya akoresheje ibiganza byombi. Yakundaga kumva indirimbo no kubyina. Akiri muto yanditse udukinamico yakinanaga na mushikiwe Agnes hamwe na murumuna we Baden, yagurutsaga itiyara (cerfs-volants) mu busitani bwa Hyde Park, kandi yari azi kwigana cyane abantu, inyoni n’izindi nyamaswa. Koko rero, ibyinsi tubona mu migenzereze y’Abaskuti b’iki gihe bifite inkomoko mu mibyirukire ya Robert. ishuri rya mbere yagiye kwigamo riherereye i Tunbridge mu karere ka Kent, ariko nyuma y’imyaka ibiri yabonye buruse ajya kwiga i Charterhouse, i Londoni. Aho niho abanyeshuri bagenzi be bamuhimbye akazina ka “B.-P.”, kuko izina rye ryababeraga rirerire.

NYUMA Y'AMASOMO B.-P. YAKORAGA BYINSHI

Igihe yigaga i Charterhouse, B.-P. yarishimishije cyane mu bikorwa byo ku ishuri. Yinjiye muri korali, agacuranga umwirongi muri orchestra y’abasirikari bato, kandi akavuza  akarumbeti. Mu ishuri B.-P. ntiyari umunyeshuri mwiza. Ariko nyuma y’amasomo yakoraga ibintu byinshi. Agashishikarira cyane indirimbo, gushushanya no kwandika.

Yari umukinnyi w’umuhanga, yari umurashi udahusha akaba n’umurindazamu ukomeye mu mupira w’amaguru. B.-P. ntiyari muremure cyane, ahubwo yari ananutse n’imisatsi y’ibara ry’ubugondo. Yari akunzwe cyane mu rungano rwe, ahanini kubera amashyengo yagiraga.  Igihe cyose yumvaga ashaka kwigunga, yarinyabyaga akajya kwiherera mu ishyamba ryari mu manga y’umusozi hafi y’ibibuga by’imikino byo ku ishuri. Hari ahantu habujijwe abanyeshuri. B.-P. we yari azi kwihisha, agacika abarimu akajya kwishimisha muri iryo shyamba. Aho akuriye yaje kubitangaho ubuhamya aho yanditse agira ati: “Aho ni ho natekerezaga ko ndi inyeshyamba, nkaba umurarizi n’umuhigi w’umuhinde. Narahajagajagaga, nshakisha ibimenyetso nkanitegereza imyobo y’inkwavu, inkima, ifuku n’ibyari by’inyoni. Nk’umurarizi, nategaga imitego, nuko igihe mfashe urukwavu cyangwa inkima (ntibyabaga kenshi), nitozaga kurubaga, kurusukura no kurwotsa. Ariko kuko nabaga nzi ko abahigi b’abahinde (Peaux Rouges) bari hafi, mu ishusho y’abarimu bahigisha uruhindu abanyeshuri b’inzererezi mu ishyamba, nakoreshaga umuriro udacumba umwotsi kuko nabaga mfite ubwoba bwo kugaragaza ubwihisho bwanjye… Ibyo nigiye muri iryo shyamba byari integuza bikaba n’ikiruhuko. Kumenya ishyamba ntibyazamuye gusa imikurire yanjye mu gihagararo no mu bwenge, ahubwo byatumye nk’umusore menya roho yanjye.
Bwari uburyo bworoheje, ariko gusesera no kwihisha njyenyine nitegereza inyoni, n’inyamaswa z’ishyamba hamwe n’ibinyugunyugu byatumaga mba umusangirangendo w’ibiremwa aho kuba umucengezi w’ishyamba, ibyo bikaba byarampishuriye ubwiza bw’ibidukikije, kandi bimpishurira na none ubwiza bw’ibimera n’agasusuruko k’izuba rirenga.”

B.-P. YATOJE ABASIRIKARE BE KUMENYA KWITEGEREZA

Gukorera muri uwo mutwe wa “5e Dragons de la Garde” mu gihugu cy’Ubuhinde, byatumye B.-P. agira igitekerezo cyo gutoza ingabo ze nk’integuza za gisirikare ; abigisha imikino yo kumenya kwitegereza, gushyira ibimenyetso mu nzira, gushushanya no gusoma amakarita wifashishije ibimenyetso by’ibyerekezo, agambiriye kubarinda kugira irungu. Ashyiraho uburyo bwo gukorera mu matsinda mato, abasirikari be akagenda ababumbira mu dutsinda duto tuyobowe n’umusuzofisiye (sous-officier) ufite inshingano zo kubyaza umusaruro ufatika abantu ashinzwe. Imyitozo yakorwaga mu marushanwa y’imikino inyuranye. Abasirikari bazamukaga bakagera ku rwego rushimishije mu bumenyi bw’integuza bahabwaga umudari umeze nk’ikimenyetso kigaragaza amajyaruguru ku kinyabyerekezo (boussole). Iki umuntu yakigereranya n’umukurambere w’ikimenyetso mpuzamahanga cy’Abaskuti ku isi. Mu 1899, B.-P. yasubiye mu Bwongereza afite imbanziriza-gitabo (manuscript) yari yaranditse yitwa “Aids to Scouting”. (Ugenekereje byavuga UBUFASHA MU GUTEGUZA). Icyo gitabo cyagaragazaga amahugurwa yahaye ingabo ze mu Buhindi. Nyuma y’aho gato, muri Nyakanga 1899, bamusubiza muri Afurika y’Epfo, ahabwa ubutumwa bwo kuyobora imitwe ibiri y’ingabo zirwanira ku mafarasi, cyane cyane ko hari hamaze kugaragara amakimbirane y’urudaca hagati y’Abongereza n’Ababerisi (Boers). Intambara itera ku itariki ya 11 Ukwakira 1899, B. -P. ashyira umutwe umwe w’ingabo i Bulawayo (muri Zimbabwe y’iki gihe) we yerekeza i Mafikengi (bisobanura ahantu h’amabuye mu rurimi rw’ababarolongo) hari ahantu h’ibirindiro bikomeye ku nkombe z’uruzi rwa Molopo.

KU RUGAMBA RWA MAFIKENG, BWA MBERE MU MATEKA, B.-P. YATOJE INGIMBI (BA KADOGO) KUBA INTASI

Jenerali Koronji (Cronje) w’umuberisi (boer) atera Mafeking n’umutwe w’ingabo ugizwe n’abasirikari basaga ibihumbi icyenda (9,000). Mafikengi igotwa ityo. B. -P. wari ufite ingabo 1,000 gusa yagombaga guhangana n’abasirikare 9,000 by’ababerisi. Ariko nk’uko B. -P. yari umusirikari w’intwari, akarangwa no kugira ibitekerezo byinshi, yashoboye kurinda umujyi wa Mafikengi igihe cy’amezi arindwi yose, yagoswe iminsi 218. Ariko nk’uko yari azi neza ko akeneye abasirikari be bose ari bazima, (muri icyo gihe cy’igotwa, abasirikari basaga 400 baguye ku rugamba) yemera igitekerezo cyo gutoza ingimbi zari mu mujyi wa Mafikengi abagira ba kadogo bashobora gufasha imirimo imwe n’imwe ngombwa mu buzima bw’ingabo, ariko idafitanye isano n’urugamba, bityo abasirikari be bibanda gusa ku mirwano y’urugamba barinze umujyi. Bavuga ko icyo gitekerezo cyatanzwe na Bwana Sesili (Lord Cecil), umwe mu bari bagize ubuyobozi bw’ingabo (état major) za B. -P.  Ba Kadogo b’i Mafikengi, n’umutware wabo Warner Goodyear bagize uruhare rukomeye ku nkomoko y’ubuskuti. Nibwo bwa mbere umusore w’ingimbi yabaye “intasi” (Eclaireur), mu gaco k’ingabo zihariye. (Nimushobora gusura inzu ndangamurage ya Mafikengi, muzibonera ko ba Kadogo b’i Mafikengi bafite umwanya ukomeye mu rwibitso rw’ibyo bihe by’ubutwari).


Byanditswe : tariki ya 09 Werurwe 2017 saa 16:52:31, ubu , : 2553
Uwabitangaje : Robert Makuta

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